Note to self: re-produce this image into a romantic card for a future (ex) girlfriend.
I'm a #premed student of #biology. This blog is dedicated to love of #science and medicine!! -->> AND complaining/appreciating (I know, weird) how stressful/interesting being a science major and aspiring doctor can be. Something you should prolly know, science can be a bitch sometimes but I sure cannot find anything more rewarding, more interesting and fun than science and medicine!
Empathy: The Human Connection to Patient Care
Patient care is more than just healing — it’s building a connection that encompasses mind, body and soul.
If you could stand in someone else’s shoes … hear what they hear. See what they see. Feel what they feel. Would you treat them differently?
CEO Toby Cosgrove, MD, shared this video, titled “Empathy,” with the Cleveland Clinic staff during his 2012 State of the Clinic address on Feb. 27, 2013.
➨ Visit Cleveland Clinic: http://bit.ly/XlxDfr
To combat errors and fatigue, medical interns are limited to 16-hour shifts. Some see negative consequences.
"In some specialties, notably surgery, there were no limits: Sixty-hour shifts were not uncommon, and trainees sometimes fell asleep at the operating table.”
I’m sooo scared of this O_O
You ready for some really, really awkward science rap? You pre-meds and med students will get a kick out of this.
I give you “Thrift Lab”, a medical pathology tribute to Macklemore.
Man, this is just so nerdy. But I love it.
GUISE!!! GUISE!!! WATCH
One day I’ll dissect one of these beautiful bad boys!
Holding this and studying it was probably the second most wonderful thing I did this year. Only second to the brain! Palpating it, moving your fingers through its chambers, and feeling how rigid its structures are make you stand in awe to this beautiful little muscle. Keep it pumping!
A demonstration of breath filling human lungs
The demonstration is performed with the deeply appreciated gift of a human body from a donor program, with no fixatives added. Integral anatomy is an approach to learning anatomy by studying whole textural layers, and noticing our relationships with them. Inspiration is a key to wholesome healthy living. Enjoy the pleasure of breathing: every inhalation is a gift!
In answer to the question, “How is this done?”: An instrument has been introduced into the airway of the form through which air is being delivered to inflate the lungs at the pace of human breath. The rib-basket has been reflected and removed to enable viewing of the process of the lungs filling with air. Breath while you watch, it is an expansive experience.
ABSOLUTE MUST SEE
THIS IS FREAKING AMAZING
On Wednesdays at Hammersmith Hospital in London, a few recently preserved human brains are dissected according to an international protocol and stored in a tissue bank for further research. The brains have mostly been donated by people with Parkinson’s disease or multiple sclerosis (both degenerative and incurable diseases of the central nervous system), but control samples of healthy brains are required too. This documentary is a modified version of one which appears in the Brains exhibition at Wellcome Collection, with an added commentary from the neuropathologist, Steve Gentleman. It conveys the craft discipline exercised by scientists in their quest to understand these often-tragic conditions.
Pretty sure I posted this at least once before.. but regardless, it’s always worth blogging! Absolutely great.
Leukocytes ~ macrophages, neutrophils, mast cells, natural killer cells, dendritic cells
- macrophages = phagocytose pathogen and then act as antigen presenting cell.
- neutrophils = Polymorphonuclear leukocytes = PMNs = phagocytose pathogen and destroys it.
- mast cells: release histamine during an allergic response, bring about inflammation.
- natural killer cells: kills infected/abnormal cells.
- dendritic cells: the best antigen presenting cells.
- Matures in the Thymus.
- Cytotoxic T cells recognize antigen on infected cells, and signal for apoptosis.
- Helper T cells recognize antigen on antigen-presenting cells, and signal for activation of B cells, T cells, and macrophages.
B-lymphocytes, plasma cells
- Matures in Bone marrow.
- B cells form plasma cells and memory cells when exposed to antigen.
- Plasma cells = secrete Antibody.
- Memory cells = stick around in case the same Antigen attacks in the future.
- Provides a site for WBCs to reside and proliferate.
- Removes pathogens from blood.
- Removes old RBCs and platelets.
Thymus: T lymphocytes differentiate in the thymus.
- Provide a site for WBCs to reside and proliferate.
- Removes pathogens from lymph.
- Residing lymphocytes monitor lymph for foreign antigens, and initiate an immune response when exposed to foreign antigens.
Basic aspects of innate immunity and inflammatory response: INNATE immunity= first line of defense = kills anything that doesn’t look right = not specific to a particular pathogen / antigen
- - Skin: natural flora, layer of keratin.
- - Mucus membranes: traps pathogen in mucus, and cilia moves it out.
- - Phagocytes: engulf pathogen.
- - Natural killer cells: destroy infected cells.
- - Antimicrobial proteins: tears (lyse bacteria), interferons (interfere with virus replication), complement (punches holes in cell/pathogen membrane).
- ~Fever/inflammation: WBCs are more active at higher temperature, and inflammation recruits WBCs to site of infection by sending out chemical signals and making capillaries more permeable.
ADAPTIVE immunity = highly specific for a particular pathogen / antigen.
- Antigen presenting cells present foreign antigen on their surface.
- Antigen is recognized by T and B cells.
- Cytotoxic T cells kill infected cells.
- Helper T cells Activate Macrophages, T and B cells.
- B cells produce AntiBodies.
- AntiBodies bind to antigens and bring about:
~~ Neutralization: pathogen can’t adhere to host cell
~~ Opsonization: makes it easier for phagocytosis
~~ Complement activation: kills infected cell by punching holes in cell membrane.
- Memory cells are made that are much more efficient (does NOT need T cell activation) in proliferating and making antibodies in case the same infection strikes in the future.
- Memory cells allow the body to mount a greater, and more sustained response against the same pathogen during secondary response.
Concept of Antigen and Antibody
- AntiBody = lock, Antigen = key. Each antibody is specific to the binding of an antigen.
- AntiBody is like a Y, the tips of the fork bind antigen.
- The tips of the fork are called hypervariable regions because they are unique to each antigen-specific antibody.
- The AntiBody consists of 2 light chains and 2 heavy chains linked together by disulfide bonds.
Mechanism of stimulation by antigen; antigen presentation
- pathogen enters antigen-presenting-cell (APC)
- pieces of the pathogen gets displayed at the surface of APCs.
- T cell receptors recognize the presented antigen, and activates various immune responses.
scenario 1: EXTRAcellular pathogen
1. Macrophage engulfs pathogen.
2. pieces of the pathogen becomes the antigen and gets presented at the macrophage’s cell surface.
3. Helper T cells recognize the presented antigen, and Activates Macrophages to destroy pathogen. Helper T cells also Activate B cells to produce antibodies against the pathogen.
scenario 2: INTRAcellular pathogen
1. pathogen invades host cell.
2. pieces of the pathogen gets presented on the host cell surface.
3. Cytotoxic T cells recognize the presented antigen, and signals the infected cell to self-destruct.